The Insecure Wire

a network engineers perspective

Cannot extend datastore through vCenter Server

Today on the random VMware “feature” list – extended a datastore. So on the EMC SAN side the LUN was increased and vSphere client (vCenter) could see the extended drive. However you could not extended the datastore via the wizard.

Very interesting – quick google yeilded;
Cannot extend datastore through vCenter Server
So basically vCenter applies a filter when pulling available extents based on criteria:

1. LUNS are not used as datastores on that host or on any other host.
2. LUNS are not used as Raw Device Mappings on that host or any other host.

Solution – connect to the host directly that has the LUN and add the extend with the extend datastore wizard.

Adding system wide proxy to Ubuntu 18.04 Sever

Here’s how to do it:

Log into the CLI of your Ubuntu 18.04 server.
sudo su
sudo nano /etc/environment

Now add in your proxy variables in the following format:

http_proxy="http://my.proxyserver.net:8080/"
https_proxy="http://my.proxyserver.net:8080/"
ftp_proxy="http://my.proxyserver.net:8080/"
no_proxy="localhost,127.0.0.1,::1

Disconnect from CLI and login again for /etc/environment to take affect.

Cisco ISE Invalid MAC Address

If the incorrect format is used to import a MAC address (Cisco ISE 2.3.0.298) you can’t delete it from the endpoint identity group screen (Administration > Groups > Endpoint Identity Groups. Error is as follows:

Cisco ISE Invalid MAC

To work around this remove the incorrectly formatted MAC address from:

Work Centers > Network Access > Identities. Use the search box and trash icon to clear the mac.

Multihoming Cisco 2K FEX with 5K Fabric

Recently we moved our data centre which is a Cisco UCS and Nexus Fabric design. After a very long day moving gear and reconnecting it all back up we couldn’t understand why one of our FEX’s kept flapping from the 5K fabric. The 5K fabric is multi homed to 2 FEX switches each in its on virtual port channel. We researched the issue and found that if your doing multi homing to more than one FEX switch you need to make sure the physical interface IDs on the 5K marry up.
fex

For example:

5K-1 Port e1/29 (vpc101) -> 2K-1 Uplink Port 1
5K-2 Port e1/30 (vpc102) -> 2K-2 Uplink Port 1
5K-1 Port e1/29 (vpc101) -> 2K-1 Uplink Port 2
5K-2 Port e1/30 (vpc102) -> 2K-2 Uplink Port 2

As you can see above the 5K side is the same port number on each 5K connecting to a FEX. This fixed the flapping issue and ownership console error. Good times ensued and we could patch all our physical copper rack servers.

Connecting to a network port without sending data to it using MacOS

So the other day I needed a quick and easy way to test L4 comms to a server from a guest wireless segment. I purchased a new Macbook earlier this year (a support unix based OS just works best for networking IMO) and MacOS has the netcat tool built into the cli. To use it open terminal and type ‘nc’.

Onto the scenario – we moved a datacentre over the weekend and our WAN provider changed out the router and accidentally missed out a permit statement in the WAN-IN ACL for the guest wireless network. This meant no one could access the Cisco ISE captive portal.

So after I had the ISP add the ACL back in I used the nc command on MacOS to verify layer 4 communications to the Cisco ISE server captive portal port which is TCP/8443 like so:

nc -zv 192.168.1.100 8443

‘z’ scans for listening daemons and does not send any data just connects to the port and ‘v’ sets the output to verbose. In this case the ACL had been updated and the output comes back as successful:

MacOS Terminal

Configuring F5 BIG-IP APM Webtop with Office 365

F5 Networks make a great application delivery controller called BIG-IP also known as a load balancer. A feature of this platform is Access Policy Manager or APM for short. A licensed APM module gives you the ability to use the F5 appliances as a SSL vpn, application portal and front end proxy for various authentication. It really is quite powerful.

In today’s enterprise IT environment, pretty much everyone has a Microsoft Office 365 or Azure subscription, cloud man! Office 365 is pretty feature rich and cool to use. When you setup your on premises Active Directory environment for single sign on, you are required to install MS Active Directory Federation Services. Essentially this allows a user to login to your Windows domain and when they browse to O365 it will log them in automatically. OK pretty standard stuff.

We use the F5 APM webtop feature as an web application single sign on portal. Users can go to a URL anywhere they have Internet access and login to the SSO portal. The portal gives users the ability to change expired passwords as well, such is the power of F5 APM. Recently I integrated this feature with on premises ADFS and Office 365. We have direct icon links for the 365 Portal, Email and One Drive. Since the user is already authenticated against AD, the session can be used for 365. Let me show you how;

Before we start please note: Using a webtop with ADFS does not require you to have ADFS presented with an iapp on the F5. It just has to be on-net and accessible by the F5 self IP.

1. Under Access Policy > SSO Configurations > NTLMv1 > Create a NTLMv1 SSO Configuration as below:

2. Under Access Policy > Portal Access > Portal Access List > Create a new Portal Access List:

Set the application URI as follows (update your ADFS domain name obviously it’s not contoso).

Office 365 Portal:
https://adfs.contoso.com/adfs/ls/?wa=wsignin1.0&wtrealm=urn:federation:MicrosoftOnline&wctx=MEST%3D0%26LoginOptions%3D2%26wa%3Dwsignin1.0%26rpsnv%3D2%26ver%3D6.1.6206.0%26wp%3DMCMBI%26wreply%3Dhttps:%252F%252Fportal.microsoftonline.com%252FDefault.aspx%26lc%3D1033%26id%3D271345

Email (Outlook Online):
https://adfs.contoso.com/adfs/ls/?wa=wsignin1.0&wtrealm=urn:federation:MicrosoftOnline&wctx=MEST%3D0%26LoginOptions%3D2%26wa%3Dwsignin1.0%26rpsnv%3D2%26ver%3D6.1.6206.0%26wp%3DMCMBI%26wreply%3Dhttps://outlook.office365.com

One Drive (edit the sharepoint URL to your own):
https://adfs.contoso.com/adfs/ls/?wa=wsignin1.0&wtrealm=urn:federation:MicrosoftOnline&wctx=MEST%3D0%26LoginOptions%3D2%26wa%3Dwsignin1.0%26rpsnv%3D2%26ver%3D6.1.6206.0%26wp%3DMCMBI%26wreply%3Dhttps://contsocom-my.sharepoint.com

3. Add your ADFS server as the resource item. We are just going to pass through authentication and the user will redirect to the O365 service. Click the Add button and configure as below:

Configure host as your ADFS host name i.e adfs.contoso.com and SSO configuration as the item you created in step 1.

4. Add your Portal resource to your access profile for webtop configuration. This is completed in Access Policy > Access Profiles > Edit the policy with Visual Policy Editor.

5. Portal icons can be customized in Access Policy > Customization > General

6. ADFS requires that TLS server name indicator is set on all requests. Since we are using this with the APM webtop feature. You need to create an SSL server profile that sets the ADFS server SNI. Browse to Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Server. Create a new profile and select advanced. In the SNI field set the name to the ADFS server such as adfs.contoso.com.
Edit the APM virtual server under Local Traffic > Virtual Servers > Virtual Server List. Add the ssl server profile to selected.

7. An irule also needs to be created that is attached to the VIP that selects the server profile when the ADFS is accessed. Browse to Local Traffic > iRules. Below is an example.

when HTTP_REQUEST {
set sslProfile [getfield [HTTP::uri] ":" 1] }

when SERVER_CONNECTED {
if { $sslProfile starts_with “/f5-w-68747470733a2f2f616466732e636f6e746f736f2e636f6d$$/” } { #log local0. “One $sslProfile”
SSL::profile adfs-contoso }
}

Apply this iRule as a resource to your APM portal virtual server.

8. You must add the adfs server URLs to your rewrite profile that is applied to the APM portal virtual server. Add both URLs – for example:
https://adfs.contoso.com/*
https://adfs.contoson.com:443/*

So there you have it; smart linking Office 365 apps with an F5 APM webtop via ADFS.

Error 29702 upgrading VMware VCenter 5.5 to 6.0

Like most enterprise IT shops, we have a significant VMware investment. One of the requirements of upgrading to VSphere 6 is to upgrade your VCenter out of band. Our VCenter is on Windows Server 2012 with Micosoft SQL Server on box. A Windows VCenter upgrade is fairly straight forward – make sure your SQL DB, SSL certs and SSO config are backed up prior to running the upgrade. Another gotcha is to make sure you know your VCenter DB username and password prior to any upgrade. If your VCenter is a VM – then here is where a snapshot is the perfect tonic.

During the installer pre-upgrade check i had the following error:

SQL Permissions Error

SQL Permissions Error

This was resolved by running an SQL query on the VCenter DB:
use master
go
grant VIEW SERVER STATE to [vCenter_database_user]
go
GRANT VIEW ANY DEFINITION TO [vCenter_database_user]
go

The KB below details this:
https://kb.vmware.com/selfservice/microsites/search.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=2114754

Once I ran the installer it started to remove the existing 5.5 version but then it failed with an error, dumping the logs to the system temp directory. Upon investigation the MSI error was 29702 – unable to configure log browser. Further inspection of the logs pointed to the VSphere Web Client. So the plan of action here was to remove all 5.5 components and then reinstall them cleanly, pointing to the existing database. All of the components would uninstall accept for the Web Client – it kept giving the above error.

Enter the Microsoft Fix It utility:
https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/17588/fix-problems-that-block-programs-from-being-installed-or-removed

This utility allowed me to force remove the Web Client (from the Windows registry) and then proceed to installing 5.5 fresh again. Pointing the 5.5 install to the existing DB – i now had a clean VCenter 5.5. This actually took several hours to find the fix and remove and reinstall 5.5. From this point running the 6.0 wizard was a breeze and took around 30 mins, this depends on the size of your VCenter DB.

CUCM – Report on all Call Forwards with SQL

Recently I had the task of integrating two separate CUCM clusters together. One of the tasks I had was to work out how many users had call forwards set on their directory numbers so we could either keep or remove them. Call forwards can cause a monetary or management issue if not looked after correctly. Specifically we didn’t want call forwards to a main campus number to be translated to a contact center queue.download

A simple way to achieve this was to run an SQL query on your CUCM Publisher via SSH.

From the CLI;

admin:run sql select dnorpattern,cfadestination,cfavoicemailenabled from CallForwardDynamic c, numplan n where c.fknumplan = n.pkid and (cfadestination != '' or cfavoicemailenabled ='t')

This SQL statement returns all the directory numbers that have call forwards to an extension or PSTN number or voicemail. Extensions or PSTN are denoted with an ‘f’. Voicemail forward is denoted with a ‘t’. You can copy the output into Excel for easy manipulation.

Pretty simple really but handy to know.

Using the Palo Alto API for Captive Portal Logout

It’s API time! Haven’t had a post in a while but in wanted to share this:

This year I had the opportunity to roll out a Palo Alto networks next-gen firewall appliance. We have many areas of our college that require specific access to deliver classes (think IT, engineering etc). These areas are separated by an L2 firewall. Since i was rolling out a full user-id implementation of Palo Alto, i needed a solution that allowed these isolated areas to be able to access the network.

Palo Alto Networks

This is where the captive portal is really handy. You can redirect HTTP requests to a login page where the user is authenticated against your directory source and at the same time User-ID on the PAN will map that user to the source IP. The user will then be able to hit layer 7 rules based on user or group. You will also get the full content-id tracking of which user did what during their session. The issue that I faced was how to remove stale sessions if a user left a PC before the timeout values kicked in.

A really cool feature of PAN-OS is its extensive RESTful XML API. You can browse PAN firewalls API by simply going to http(s)://hostname/api/ (where host name is the device name and domain or IP address). Using the XML API i was able to create a php logout script which when called would remove the user to IP mapping from both the data plane and the management plane. The API supports both http GET and POST methods. The guide is accessible here.

Below is the code for logout.php which we call with wget or similar (no proxy). I used PHP as it was easy with the global $_SERVER[‘REMOTE_ADDR’] variable – this is so we could get the true client address as some machines are behind nat or even worse dual nat! The php curl module is used to access the PAN API using the http GET method.

The variables needed are DNS name of the device and your API key. A prerequisite is that your host has the php5-curl package installed (for debian based /w apache it is ‘sudo apt-get install php5-curl’).
Hit the link to see the code! Continue reading →

Cisco UCCX Prompt Codec Format

This post outlines the Cisco UCCX Prompt Codec Format. At the college I work for we have the full Cisco Unified Communications stack. One of my day to day tasks is to manage the VOIP solution. This includes CUCM (Call Manager) and UCCX for Contact Center queues. One of the more mundane task that comes with administering UCCX is prompt recordings. These are your standard phone queuing IVR’s (Interactive Voice Recordings). UCCX uses the WAV container format for prompts. The most annoying issue here is that UCCX does not trans-code WAV codec formats. You must do this yourself before uploading your WAV file to the UCCX Appadmin management tool. If not the sound will be garbled, like white noise.

The accepted codec for UCCX WAV files is – CCITT u-Law, 8 kHz, 8 bit mono. This can be achieved using Audacity or NCH Switch sound converter. Both available on Windows OS.

Originally published as ‘Cisco UCCX Prompt Codec Format’